1. Possession and Transfer of Personal Property

  • 1.1. Distinction between Real Property (Land) and Personal Property or Chattels
    • 1.1.1 Historic Distinction
    • 1.1.2. Tangible Real Property
    • 1.1.3. Chattels
    • 1.1.4. Things In Between: Fixtures and the Like
    • 1.1.5. Intangibles
  • 1.2. Wild Animals
    • 1.2.1. Ownership Through Capture
    • 1.2.2. Escape
    • 1.2.3. Exception for Trespassers
  • 1.3. Rights of Possessors
    • 1.3.1. Right of Owner to Possess
      • 1.3.1.1. Physical Possession
      • 1.3.1.2. Intent to Control
      • 1.3.1.3. Constructive Possession
      • 1.3.1.4. Custody
    • 1.3.2. Right of Owner to Transfer Rights
  • 1.4. Accession (Adding of New Value to a Chattel)
    • 1.4.1. By Natural Growth
    • 1.4.2. By Labor of Another
      • 1.4.2.1. Willful Wrongdoer
      • 1.4.2.2. Innocent Wrongdoer
    • 1.4.3. By Trespasser to Realty
    • 1.4.4. Addition of Goods Owned by Another
  • 1.5. Bona Fide Purchasers
  • 1.6. Bailment (the rightful possession of goods by one who is not the owner)
    • 1.6.1. Differ from Bailments in Contracts Course (here K implied or non-existent)
    • 1.6.2. Characteristics
      • 1.6.2.1. Title Remains in Bailor
      • 1.6.2.2. Problems of Fungible Goods (ex. grain in an elevator)
      • 1.6.2.3. Distinguished from a Sale
      • 1.6.2.4. Possession and Physical Control by Bailee
      • 1.6.2.5. Intent by Bailee to Assume Custody and Control
        • 1.6.2.5.1. Intent to Take Possession and Exercise Control Need Not be Voluntary
    • 1.6.3. Standards of Care Imposed on the Bailee
      • 1.6.3. Standards of Care Imposed on the Bailee / 1.6.3.1. Older View
        • 1.6.3.1. Older View / 1.6.3.1.1. Was Bailment for the Benefit of the Bailor or the Bailee or Both?
      • 1.6.3. Standards of Care Imposed on the Bailee / 1.6.3.2. Modern View
        • 1.6.3.2. Modern View / 1.6.3.2.1. Bailee Must Exercise Ordinary Care Under the Circumstances
        • 1.6.3.2. Modern View / 1.6.3.2.2. What Circumstances Do Courts Consider? Bailment that Results from Contract
        • 1.6.3.2. Modern View / 1.6.3.2.3. Public Policy Considerations
    • 1.6.4. Duty of Bailee to Redeliver
      • 1.6.4. Duty of Bailee to Redeliver / 1.6.4.1. Demand by Bailor
      • 1.6.4. Duty of Bailee to Redeliver / 1.6.4.2. Demand May be Unnecessary If Goods Destroyed
      • 1.6.4. Duty of Bailee to Redeliver / 1.6.4.3. Wrongful Termination of the Bailment by the Bailee
      • 1.6.4. Duty of Bailee to Redeliver / 1.6.4.4. Liability Inferred in Goods Not Returned
      • 1.6.4. Duty of Bailee to Redeliver / 1.6.4.5. Liability for Conversion
    • 1.6.5. Bailee's Rights
      • 1.6.5. Bailee's Rights / 1.6.5.1. Right to Possession and Use
      • 1.6.5. Bailee's Rights / 1.6.5.2. Right to Compensation and Expenses
      • 1.6.5. Bailee's Rights / 1.6.5.3 Right to Exercise a Lien
      • 1.6.5. Bailee's Rights / 1.6.5.4. Right to Sue a Third Party
    • 1.6.6. Bailor's Rights Against Third Parties
      • 1.6.6. Bailor's Rights Against Third Parties / 1.6.6.1. Against Bono Fide Furchasers
      • 1.6.6. Bailor's Rights Against Third Parties / 1.6.6.2. Against Those Who Damage or Destroy the Goods
  • 1.7. Intervivos Gifts
    • 1.7. Intervivos Gifts / 1.7.1. Elements of an Intervivos Gift
    • 1.7. Intervivos Gifts / 1.7.2. Understanding Intent and Delivery
      • 1.7.2. Understanding Intent and Delivery / 1.7.2.1. Functions of Intent and Delivery
      • 1.7.2. Understanding Intent and Delivery / 1.7.2.2. Permissible Types of Delivery
      • 1.7.2. Understanding Intent and Delivery / 1.7.2.3. Delivery in Special Circumstances
        • 1.7.2.3. Delivery in Special Circumstances / 1.7.2.3.1. Delivery to a Third party (Escrow)
        • 1.7.2.3. Delivery in Special Circumstances / 1.7.2.3.2. Gifts of Intangibles and Undivided Interests
        • 1.7.2.3. Delivery in Special Circumstances / 1.7.2.3.3 When Delivery Is Excused
    • 1.7. Intervivos Gifts / 1.7.3. Conditional Gifts
  • 1.8. Testamentary Gifts
    • 1.8. Testamentary Gifts / 1.8.1. Testamentary Gifts
    • 1.8. Testamentary Gifts / 1.8.2 .Causa Mortis Gifts
    • 1.8. Testamentary Gifts / 1.8.3. Gifts of Future Interests
      • 1.8.3. Gifts of Future Interests / 1.8.3.1. Present and Future Interests
      • 1.8.3. Gifts of Future Interests / 1.8.3.2. Intent and Delivery Requirements
      • 1.8.3. Gifts of Future Interests / 1.8.3.3. Distinguishing Inter Vivos Gifts of a Future Interest from a Testamentary Gift
  • 1.9. Finders of Lost Property
    • 1.9. Finders of Lost Property / 1.9.1 Rights of Possessor Over All Except the Owner
    • 1.9. Finders of Lost Property / 1.9.2. Chattels Abandoned by Their First Owner
      • 1.9.2. Chattels Abandoned by Their First Owner / 1.9.2.1. Abandoned When Owner Intentionally Gives Up Rights
    • 1.9. Finders of Lost Property / 1.9.3. Property Lost When Owner Involuntarily Parted with Property
    • 1.9. Finders of Lost Property / 1.9.4. Obligations of Finders of Lost Property
    • 1.9. Finders of Lost Property / 1.9.5. Goods Found on Property of Another
      • 1.9.5. Goods Found on Property of Another / 1.9.5.1. Goods Found Under the Soil vs. Treasure Trove
      • 1.9.5. Goods Found on Property of Another / 1.9.5.2. Goods Found by Trespasser
    • 1.9. Finders of Lost Property / 1.9.6. Goods Found by Employee
    • 1.9. Finders of Lost Property / 1.9.7. Mislaid Property
  • 1.10. Wrongful Possession
  • 1.11. Fixtures
    • 1.11. Fixtures / 1.11.1. Defined
    • 1.11. Fixtures / 1.11.2. Transfer of Ownership of an Item
    • 1.11. Fixtures / 1.11.3. Conversion of a Chattel to a Fixture
    • 1.11. Fixtures / 1.11.4. Severance Conversion of a Fixture to a Chattel
    • 1.11. Fixtures / 1.11.5. Landlord and Tenant Rules

    2. Adverse Possession

  • 2. Adverse Possession / 2.1. Lecturette - Historical Underpinnings and Policy Overview
  • 2. Adverse Possession / 2.2. Adverse Possession: An Introduction
    • 2.2. Adverse Possession: An Introduction / 2.2.1. Mechanics of Adverse Possession (Pt. II)- How Adverse Possession Operates
    • 2.2. Adverse Possession: An Introduction / 2.2.2. The Function of the Open and Notorious Standard
    • 2.2. Adverse Possession: An Introduction / 2.2.3. Applying the Standard to Boundary Encroachment Disputes - The Relevance (or Irrelevance) of The True Owner's Knowledge of the Encroachment
    • 2.2. Adverse Possession: An Introduction / 2.2.4. Adverse Possession of Open Lands
  • 2. Adverse Possession / 2.3. Color of Title and Constructive Adverse Possession
    • 2.3. Color of Title and Constructive Adverse Possession / 2.3.1. Defined
    • 2.3. Color of Title and Constructive Adverse Possession / 2.3.2. Shortening the Limitations Period
    • 2.3. Color of Title and Constructive Adverse Possession / 2.3.3. Constructive Adverse Possession
  • 2. Adverse Possession / 2.4. Exclusive and Continuous Possession for the Statutory Period
    • 2.4. Exclusive and Continuous Possession for the Statutory Period / 2.4.1. Exclusive Possession
    • 2.4. Exclusive and Continuous Possession for the Statutory Period / 2.4.2. Continuous Possession
      • 2.4.2. Continuous Possession / 2.4.2.1. Continuity
      • 2.4.2. Continuous Possession / 2.4.2.2. Transfers and Tacking
      • 2.4.2. Continuous Possession / 2.4.2.3. Interrupting the Statutory Period
        • 2.4.2.3. Interrupting the Statutory Period / 2.4.2.3.1. Conduct that Interrupts the Statutory Period
        • 2.4.2.3. Interrupting the Statutory Period / 2.4.2.3.2. Tolling (Non-running) of the Statutory Period
  • 2. Adverse Possession / 2.5. Hostility of Possession
    • 2.5. Hostility of Possession / 2.5.1. The Significance of Permission
    • 2.5. Hostility of Possession / 2.5.2. Evaluating Hostility
      • 2.5.2. Evaluating Hostility / 2.5.2.1. The Majority (Objective) Approach
      • 2.5.2. Evaluating Hostility / 2.5.2.2. Minority (Subjective) Approaches
  • 2. Adverse Possession / 2.6. Review - Survey of Adverse Possession
  • 2. Adverse Possession / 2.7. Related Doctrines
  • 3. Servitudes Including Easements and Promises Concerning Land

  • 3. Servitudes Including Easements and Promises Concerning Land / 3.1. Easements
    • 3.1. Easements / 3.1.1. Defined
    • 3.1. Easements / 3.1.2. Negative Easements in Contrast to Affirmative Easements
      • 3.1.2. Negative Easements in Contrast to Affirmative Easements / 3.1.2.1. Creation of Negative Easements
      • 3.1.2. Negative Easements in Contrast to Affirmative Easements / 3.1.2.2. Types of Negative Easements
    • 3.1. Easements / 3.1.3. Easement Appurtenant and Easement in Gross
      • 3.1.3. Easement Appurtenant and Easement in Gross / 3.1.3.1. Defined
      • 3.1.3. Easement Appurtenant and Easement in Gross / 3.1.3.2. Distinguishing Easements Appurtenant from Easements in Gross
    • 3.1. Easements / 3.1.4. Scope of Easements
      • 3.1.4. Scope of Easements / 3.1.4.1. Conflict Between Rights of Easement Users and Owners of the Servient Tenement
    • 3.1. Easements / 3.1.5. Implied vs. Express Easements
      • 3.1.5. Implied vs. Express Easements / 3.1.5.1. Defined
      • 3.1.5. Implied vs. Express Easements / 3.1.5.2. Creation
      • 3.1.5. Implied vs. Express Easements / 3.1.5.3. Easements by Express Reservation and by Express Grant
    • 3.1. Easements / 3.1.6. Implied Easement of Necessity
      • 3.1.6. Implied Easement of Necessity / 3.1.6.1. Purpose of Implying the Easement
      • 3.1.6. Implied Easement of Necessity / 3.1.6.2. Requirements for the Implication of the Easement
      • 3.1.6. Implied Easement of Necessity / 3.1.6.3. Severance of the Dominant and Servient Parcels
      • 3.1.6. Implied Easement of Necessity / 3.1.6.4. Necessity
      • 3.1.6. Implied Easement of Necessity / 3.1.6.5. Timeframe
      • 3.1.6. Implied Easement of Necessity / 3.1.6.6. Continuation
      • 3.1.6. Implied Easement of Necessity / 3.1.6.7. Statutory Aspects
    • 3.1. Easements / 3.1.7. Prescriptive Easements
      • 3.1.7. Prescriptive Easements / 3.1.7.1. Purposes Underlying the Easement's Recognition
      • 3.1.7. Prescriptive Easements / 3.1.7.2. Requirements to Support Acquisition
      • 3.1.7. Prescriptive Easements / 3.1.7.3. Tacking
      • 3.1.7. Prescriptive Easements / 3.1.7.4. Prescriptive Use
    • 3.1. Easements / 3.1.8. Chapter of Dominant or Servient estates (Dominant)
    • 3.1. Easements / 3.1.9. Rights and Duties of Servient Owners & Easement Holders
    • 3.1. Easements / 3.1.10. Termination of Easements
  • 3. Servitudes Including Easements and Promises Concerning Land / 3.2. Profits a Prendre - Right to Take
    • 3.2. Profits a Prendre - Right to Take / 3.2.1. Defined
    • 3.2. Profits a Prendre - Right to Take / 3.2.2. Relation to an Easement
    • 3.2. Profits a Prendre - Right to Take / 3.2.3. Creation: Profits Appurtenant or in Gross
    • 3.2. Profits a Prendre - Right to Take / 3.2.4. Termination of Profits
  • 3. Servitudes Including Easements and Promises Concerning Land / 3.3. Licenses
    • 3.3. Licenses / 3.3.1. Defined
    • 3.3. Licenses / 3.3.2. Types of Licenses
  • 3. Servitudes Including Easements and Promises Concerning Land / 3.4. Covenants Running with Land (aka Real Covenants)
    • 3.4. Covenants Running with Land (aka Real Covenants) / 3.4.1. Defined
    • 3.4. Covenants Running with Land (aka Real Covenants) / 3.4.2. Reason for Real Covenants
    • 3.4. Covenants Running with Land (aka Real Covenants) / 3.4.3. Termination of Covenants
    • 3.4. Covenants Running with Land (aka Real Covenants) / 3.4.4. Comparison Between Restatement & Traditional Common Law Rules
    • 3.4. Covenants Running with Land (aka Real Covenants) / 3.4.5. Requirements for Creation
      • 3.4.5. Requirements for Creation / 3.4.5.1. Formalities
      • 3.4.5. Requirements for Creation / 3.4.5.2. Intent
      • 3.4.5. Requirements for Creation / 3.4.5.3. Touch and Concern
      • 3.4.5. Requirements for Creation / 3.4.5.4. Privity of Estate
    • 3.4. Covenants Running with Land (aka Real Covenants) / 3.4.6. Enforcement of a Covenant
      • 3.4.6. Enforcement of a Covenant / 3.4.6.1. Rights and Duties of Parties
      • 3.4.6. Enforcement of a Covenant / 3.4.6.2. Burden and Benefit
      • 3.4.6. Enforcement of a Covenant / 3.4.6.3 Defense to Enforcement
    • 3.4. Covenants Running with Land (aka Real Covenants) / 3.4.7. Validity and Scope

    4. Possessory Estates

  • 4.1. Historical Underpinnings of Tenure Explained
  • 4.2. Fee Simple
    • 4.2.1. Fee Simple Absolute
      • 4.2.1.1. The Concept of an Estate in Land
        • 4.2.1.1.1 Possession
        • 4.2.1.1.2 Potential Duration
        • 4.2.1.1.3 Freehold vs. Non-Freehold Estates
      • 4.2.1.2 Characteristics of the Fee Simple Absolute
      • 4.2.1.3 Creation of a Fee Simple
  • 4.3. Fee Tail Estate
    • 4.3.1. Historical Origins of The Fee Tail Estate
    • 4.3.2. Legal Characteristics of the Traditional Fee Tail Estate
    • 4.3.3. Modern Fee Tail and Fee Simple Conditional Estates
    • 4.3.4. Treatment of the Fee Tail Under Modern Statutes
  • 4.4. Defeasible Estates
    • 4.4. Defeasible Estates / 4.4.1. Rules of Construction of Language
    • 4.4. Defeasible Estates / 4.4.2. Fee Simple Determinable
      • 4.4.2. Fee Simple Determinable / 4.4.2.1. Relation to Specified Event
      • 4.4.2. Fee Simple Determinable / 4.4.2.2. Buzz Words for Creation
    • 4.4. Defeasible Estates / 4.4.3. Fee Simple Subject to a Condition Subsequent
      • 4.4.3. Fee Simple Subject to a Condition Subsequent / 4.4.3.1. Grantor's Rights and Relation to a Specific Event
      • 4.4.3. Fee Simple Subject to a Condition Subsequent / 4.4.3.2. Buzz Words for Creation
    • 4.4. Defeasible Estates / 4.4.4. Fee Simple Subject to an Executory Interest
      • 4.4.4. Fee Simple Subject to an Executory Interest / 4.4.4.1. Statute of Uses
      • 4.4.4. Fee Simple Subject to an Executory Interest / 4.4.4.2. Creation in third parties
    • 4.4. Defeasible Estates / 4.4.5. Defeasible Life Estate
    • 4.4. Defeasible Estates / 4.4.6. Defeasible Non-freehold (Estate for Years)
  • 4.5. Life Estates
    • 4.5.1. Definition and Creation
    • 4.5.2. Characteristics of Life Estate
  • 4.6. Restraints on Alienation
    • 4.6. Restraints on Alienation / 4.6.1 Direct and Indirect Restraints
    • 4.6. Restraints on Alienation / 4.6.2 Disabling, Forfeiture and Promissory Restraints
    • 4.6. Restraints on Alienation / 4.6.3 Restraints on Fee Simple Estates Promissory Restraint
      • 4.6.3 Restraints on Fee Simple Estates Promissory Restraint / 4.6.3.1 Absolute Restraints on Fee Simple Estates
      • 4.6.3 Restraints on Fee Simple Estates Promissory Restraint / 4.6.3.2 Restraints on Fee Simple Estates Limited as to Time
      • 4.6.3 Restraints on Fee Simple Estates Promissory Restraint / 4.6.3.3 Restraints on Fee Simple Estates Limited as to Transferees
      • 4.6.3 Restraints on Fee Simple Estates Promissory Restraint / 4.6.3.4 Restraints on Fee Simple Estates Limited as to Manner of Alienation
  • 4.7. Doctrine of Cy Pres